Metabolic Syndrome X Associated With Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, Insulin Insensitivity, Abdominal Obesity, Atherogenic Dyslipidemia & Hyperinsulimia

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What is Metabolic Syndrome X?

Metabolic Syndrome X - a term first coined by a group of researchers at Stanford University - is a metabolic imbalance characterized by a collection of signs and symptoms which include the following:

  • Chronic abdominal obesity or adiposity (excessive fat tissue around the abdomen) with associated raised cholesterol, leading to an increased risk of heart disease.
  • Atherogenic dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol, which stimulates "furring" or "clogging" of the arteries to the heart and brain) leading to increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Hypertension (raised blood pressure) another risk factor for heart disease.
  • Insulin resistance, hyperinsulimia, glucose intolerance (the body can’t properly use insulin or blood sugar) leading to increased risk of diabetes and obesity (Diabesity®).

Metabolic Syndrome X - aka Insulin Resistance Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is also known as Insulin Resistance Syndrome, a metabolic disorder in which the body suffers from chronic insensitivity to the hormone insulin, which is released by the pancreas to permit the utilization of glucose by the cells. Patients with insulin resistance are therefore unable to use insulin efficiently and frequently develop type 2 diabetes.

What Causes Metabolic Syndrome X?

The main known causes of metabolic syndrome are a combination of (a) genetic factors; (b) obesity; and (c) lack of exercise. Other influences include: nutritional deficiencies of certain minerals, and liver dysfunction and/or fatty liver.

How do you Know if You Have Metabolic Syndrome X?

There are no universal diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. One widely used set of diagnostic criteria are those proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).

According to these ATP III criteria, metabolic syndrome X is identified by the presence of three or more of these elements:

  • Abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference:
    Men - Greater than 40 inches
    Women - Greater than 35 inches
  • Blood HDL cholesterol:
    Men - Less than 40 mg/dL
    Women - Less than 50 mg/dL
  • Fasting blood triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dL
  • Blood pressure greater than or equal to 130/85 mmHg
  • Fasting glucose greater than or equal to 110 mg/dL

What are the Consequences of Metabolic Syndrome X?

Patients with metabolic syndrome X have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, and type 2 diabetes.

How is Metabolic Syndrome X Treated?

The most effective way to reduce insulin resistance in overweight and obese people is through weight loss and increased physical activity. Some research indicates that using a low-glycemic-index diet can help to reduce insulin insensitivity and improve the regulation of glucose metabolism.

For example, if you're overweight, simply losing up to 10 percent of your current body weight can bring blood pressure down and increase your cells' sensitivity to insulin. Exercise is an important component of weight loss. It also raises HDL blood levels, even without weight loss.

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