How Glucose Converted to Energy - Details of Glucose Metabolism
Adenosine Triphosyphate, Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism

Carbs in Food
Glycemic Index GI of Carbs
Glycemic Load of Carbs
GI Diet - Low GI Diet

Information About Carbs | Carbohydrates Guide | Low Carb Diets

How We Turn Glucose Into Energy

Glucose Metabolism

Glucose is the body's fuel. Without glucose, or without being able to convert it into energy rapidly and efficiently, we cannot survive in good health. So it's very important that our energy-metabolism system works efficiently. Here is a very simple explanation of how we convert glucose into energy.

  • In response to the rise in blood-glucose levels (say) after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin which "mops up" the glucose and carries it to cells that need extra energy.
  • The glucose enters the cell by special molecules in the membrane called “glucose transporters”.
  • The cells that need glucose have specific insulin receptors on their surface so that insulin can bind to them, encouraging glucose entry and utilization in the cells.
  • Once inside your cells, the glucose is burned to produce heat and adenosine triphosyphate, (ATP) a molecule that stores and releases energy as required by the cell.
  • The metabolism of glucose into energy may occur either in combination with oxygen (aerobic metabolism) or without it (anaerobic metabolism). The oxygen used comes from the mitochondria - tiny bodies inside the cell. However, red blood cells do not have mitochondria, so they change glucose into energy without the use of oxygen.
  • Glucose is also converted to energy in muscle cells - who are probably the most important energy "customers". These muscle cells do contain mitochondria so they can process glucose with oxygen. But even if oxygen-levels in the muscle-cell mitochondria fall too low, the cells can proceed to convert glucose into energy without oxygen. Unfortunately, turning glucose into energy without oxygen produces the by-product lactic acid. And too much lactic acid makes your muscles ache

Glucose Storage

Our food-intake and energy-needs do not always coincide. For example, we may have lots of food, but no energy needs. Or we may need lots of energy but no food in sight! Fortunately, glucose can be stored as glycogen (an "energy reserve") for later use.

Without such a glucose storage system, we would either have to eat constantly or risk a dangerous lack of energy.

Carbohydrates Definition
Carbohydrates Information
Complex Carbs Guide
Simple Carbs Guide
Starch/Starchy Carbohydrates
Sugars Carbohydrates
Carb Counting Guide
Facts About Carbohydrates
Diabetes, Carbs and Diet

Fiber in Diet
Dietary Fiber
Types of Fiber
Best Sources of Fiber
Benefits of Fiber
Daily Fiber Needs

Nutrition & Carbohydrate
Nutrition in Carbs
Minerals in Carbohydrates
Vitamins in Carbohydrates
Phytochemicals in Carbs

Carbs and Glycemic Index
Digestion of Carbs
Blood Glucose Levels
Glucose into Energy
What is Glycogen?
How is GI Measured?
What Affects Glycemic Value?
Glycemic Index Food Chart
Glycemic Index Food Pyramid
Glycemic Value of a Meal
GI Values in Carbohydrates
GI Value For Beans
GI Value For Bread
GI Value For Cereal
GI Value For Dairy Food
GI Value For Drinks
GI Value For Fruit
GI Value For Meat/Fish
GI Value For Nuts
GI Value For Snacks
GI Value For Starchy Carbs
GI Value For Sugar
GI Value For Vegetables
GI Value For Whole Grains

Carbohydrate in Foods
Atkins Diet Foods
Bagels
Beans/Legumes
Beer
Bread
Cereal
Cake
Candy/Chocolate
Chips
Cookies/Biscuits
Crackers
Donut
Dressings
Energy Bars
Flour/Baking Foods
Fruit
Grains
Ice Cream
Milk, Cream,Yogurt
Muffins
Noodles
Nuts/Seeds
Pancakes/Waffles

Carbs in Food cont/
Pasta
Pies
Pizza
Popcorn
Potatoes
Pretzels
Rice
Sauces
Soda
Soup
Soy Food
Sugars
Syrups
Vegetables
Zone Diet Foods

Diet Recipes
GI Diet Recipes
Low Carb Recipes

Carb-Controlled Diets
Atkins Diet
South Beach Diet
Zone Diet
Low Carb Dieting
Benefits of Low Carb Diets
Low Carb Diets Health Risks
Ketosis - High Ketones in Blood
Gluconeogenesis Guide
Free Low Carb Diet Advice
Low Carb Weight Loss Diet

Diabetes, Insulin, Obesity
Diabetes Information
Hyperglycemia - High Blood Glucose
Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Glucose
Obesity Information
Diabesity, Diabetes and Obesity
Insulin Information
Insulin and Obesity
Types of Insulin
Hyperinsulimia - High Insulin Levels
Insulin Resistance Syndrome


Carbs-Information.com provides general information about different types of carbohydrate, like monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, as well as nutritional value of carbohydrates, carb-content of foods, plus details of GI values of all food groups, plus advice about diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. But no information is intended as a substitute for medical advice. Copyright 2003-2018.