Diabetes Information - Type 1, Type 2 - Gestational Diabetes
Mellitus (Juvenile and Adult Onset) Diabetes Insipidus

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Diabetes Information

Definition of Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus (the longhand name for diabetes) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream. This excessive level of blood glucose is caused either by an insufficiency of the pancreatic hormone "insulin", or by the body's inability to use the insulin it produces. If undiagnosed or not properly treated, diabetes can lead to a variety of short-term and long-term health problems. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. About 17 million Americans have Diabetes mellitus, of whom about 5 million remain undiagnosed. Approximately 1 million new cases of diabetes in adults are diagnosed each year. Recent estimates suggest that nearly 9 percent of the population will develop diabetes by 2025.

Glucose - Our Useable Form of Energy

The body needs energy to fuel the millions of biochemical processes which keep us in good health. This energy comes exclusively from the food and drink in our diet. First, however, the food needs to be converted (metabolized) into a "useable" form of energy. The body achieves this by converting it into glucose in the stomach and digestive tract. The glucose is then either distributed to cells and tissues requiring energy, or stored as quick-release-energy (glycogen), or stored as an energy reserve in the form of body fat (adipose tissue). This process is regulated by the pancreatic hormone called insulin.

Insulin Needed For Glucose Distribution

Unless the glucose in our blood is moved out of the bloodstream into cells and tissues, it would simply clog up our bloodstream and we would die. To prevent this happening and to maintain a correct level of blood glucose, the body relies on insulin, which is produced by cells in the pancreas called Islets of Langerhans. As we eat and convert food into glucose, the body releases insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin "opens up" cells to enable them to receive the glucose. As the glucose moves out of the blood into the cells, our blood glucose levels fall.

What Are The Main Types of Diabetes?

There are 2 main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Each has its own causes and risk factors, although both are characterized by high blood sugar.

Type 1 diabetes, which used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), occurs when the pancreas stops producing insulin. This type of diabetes usually affects children, teens or young adults, although it can strike at any age. Type 1 diabetes, which is largely inherited, accounts for about 5-10 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes, which used to be called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) typically occurs later in life, develops due to a combination of genetic factors and lifestyle, and accounts for about 90-95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is closely associated with severe overweight (obesity), a family history of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. Typically, type 2 diabetes develops from insulin insensitivity - meaning, the cells do not respond properly to insulin - which leads to a rise in blood glucose and, over time, a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. African Americans, Latino Americans, Native Americans, some Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for type 2 diabetes.

See also, Gestational Diabetes, which affects pregnant women in the later stages of pregnancy. If a woman develops gestational diabetes - which normally ceases after giving birth - she has about a 40 percent chance of contracting type 2 diabetes later in life.

For more, see: Pregnancy Complications.

Less Common Types of Diabetes

While diabetes mellitus is associated with insulin problems, another form of diabetes called diabetes insipidus is triggered by problems with the hormone "vasopressin". In addition, there are several other forms of diabetes that arise as a result of other hormonal disorders, or hormonal treatments (eg. prednisolone), or medications (eg. antihypertensive drugs like bendrofluazide). However, these types of diabetes are rare.

Linked to Insulin Resistance Syndrome and Obesity

Risk of diabetes is closely associated with a cluster of symptoms (known collectively as insulin resistance syndrome, or metabolic syndrome X), including obesity. Indeed, so close is the association between diabetes and obesity that a new word Diabesity® has been coined.

Diabetes in the United States

Number of Diabetics (2002)

  • The total number of diabetics is: 18.2 million people (6.3%).
  • Diagnosed: 13 million people; Undiagnosed: 5.2 million people

Diabetes Among Under 20 Year Olds (2002)

  • About 206,000 people under 20 years of age have diabetes. About 0.25 percent of all people in this age group.
  • Approximately one in every 400 to 500 children and adolescents has type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes Among Over 20 Year Olds (2002)

  • Age 20 years or older:
    18 million; 8.7 percent of all people in this age group have diabetes.
  • Age 60 years or older:
    8.6 million; 18.3 percent of all people in this age group have diabetes.
  • Men: 8.7 million; 8.7 percent of all men aged 20 years or older have diabetes.
  • Women: 9.3 million; 8.7 percent of all women aged 20 years or older have diabetes.

Premature Deaths Among Diabetics (2000)

Diabetes was the sixth leading cause of death listed on U.S. death certificates in 2000. However, diabetes is likely to be under-reported as a cause of death. Studies have found that only about 35 percent to 40 percent of decedents with diabetes have diabetes listed anywhere on the death certificate and only about 10 percent to 15 percent have it listed as the underlying cause of death. Overall, the risk for death among people with diabetes is about two times that of people without diabetes.

Diabetes and Risk of Heart Disease and Stroke

Heart disease is the leading cause of diabetes-related deaths. About 65 percent of deaths among people with diabetes are due to heart disease and stroke. Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about two to four times higher than adults without diabetes. The risk for stroke is two to four times higher among people with diabetes.

Sources:
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International
National Diabetes Education Program, a joint program of NIH and CDC

Guide To Diabetes Terms

acanthosis nigricans

a skin condition characterized by darkened skin patches; common in people whose body is not responding correctly to the insulin that they make in their pancreas (insulin resistance). This skin condition is also seen in people who have pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes.

acarbose

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It blocks the enzymes that digest starches in food. The result is a slower and lower rise in blood glucose throughout the day, especially right after meals. Belongs to the class of medicines called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. (Brand name: Precose.)

ACE inhibitor:

an oral medicine that lowers blood pressure; ACE stands for angiotensin converting enzyme. For people with diabetes, especially those who have protein (albumin) in the urine, it also helps slow down kidney damage.

acetohexamide:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Dymelor.)

adhesive capsulitis:

a condition of the shoulder associated with diabetes that results in pain and loss of the ability to move the shoulder in all directions.

AGEs:

stands for advanced glycosylation endproducts. AGEs are produced in the body when glucose links with protein. They play a role in damaging blood vessels, which can lead to diabetes complications.

albuminuria:

a condition in which the urine has more than normal amounts of a protein called albumin. Albuminuria may be a sign of nephropathy (kidney disease).

alpha-glucosidase inhibitor:

a class of oral medicine for type 2 diabetes that blocks enzymes that digest starches in food. The result is a slower and lower rise in blood glucose throughout the day, especially right after meals. (Generic names: acarbose and miglitol.)

amylin:

a hormone formed by beta cells in the pancreas. Amylin regulates the timing of glucose release into the bloodstream after eating by slowing the emptying of the stomach.

A1C:

a test that measures a person's average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months. Hemoglobin is the part of a red blood cell that carries oxygen to the cells and sometimes joins with the glucose in the bloodstream. Also called hemoglobin A1C or glycosylated hemoglobin, the test shows the amount of glucose that sticks to the red blood cell, which is proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood.

ARB:

an oral medicine that lowers blood pressure; ARB stands for angiotensin receptor blocker.

biguanide:

a class of oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes that lowers blood glucose by reducing the amount of glucose produced by the liver and by helping the body respond better to insulin. (Generic name: metformin.)

blood glucose level:

the amount of glucose (the main sugar found in the blood and the body's main source of energy) in a given amount of blood. It is noted in milligrams in a deciliter, or mg/dL.

blood glucose meter:

a small, portable machine used by people with diabetes to check their blood glucose levels. After pricking the skin with a lancet, one places a drop of blood on a test strip in the machine. The meter (or monitor) soon displays the blood glucose level as a number on the meter's digital display.

blood glucose monitoring:

checking blood glucose level on a regular basis in order to manage diabetes. A blood glucose meter (or blood glucose test strips that change color when touched by a blood sample) is needed for frequent blood glucose monitoring.

borderline diabetes:

a former term for type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

brittle diabetes:

a term used when a person's blood glucose level moves often from low to high and from high to low.

carb counting:

a method of meal planning for people with diabetes based on counting the number of grams of carbohydrate in food.

chlorpropamide:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose levels by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Diabinese.)

coma:

a sleep-like state in which a person is not conscious. May be caused by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) in people with diabetes.

combination therapy:

the use of different medicines together (oral hypoglycemic agents or an oral hypoglycemic agent and insulin) to manage the blood glucose levels of people with type 2 diabetes.

complications of diabetes:

harmful effects of diabetes such as damage to the eyes, heart, blood vessels, nervous system, teeth and gums, feet and skin, or kidneys. Studies show that keeping blood glucose, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels close to normal can help prevent or delay these problems.

C-peptide:

"Connecting peptide," a substance the pancreas releases into the bloodstream in equal amounts to insulin. A test of C-peptide levels shows how much insulin the body is making.

dextrose, also called glucose:

simple sugar found in blood that serves as the body's main source of energy.

diabetes insipidus:

a condition characterized by frequent and heavy urination, excessive thirst, and an overall feeling of weakness. This condition may be caused by a defect in the pituitary gland or in the kidney. In diabetes insipidus, blood glucose levels are normal.

diabetes mellitus:

a condition characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas no longer makes insulin and therefore blood glucose cannot enter the cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body is unable to use insulin correctly.

diabetic diarrhea:

loose stools, fecal incontinence, or both that result from an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine and diabetic neuropathy in the intestines. This nerve damage can also result in constipation.

diabetic myelopathy:

damage to the spinal cord found in some people with diabetes.

diabetic retinopathy:

diabetic eye disease; damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. Loss of vision may result.

diabetogenic:

causing diabetes. For example, some drugs cause blood glucose levels to rise, resulting in diabetes.

diabetologist:

a doctor who specializes in treating people who have diabetes.

D-phenylalanine derivative:

a class of oral medicine for type 2 diabetes that lowers blood glucose levels by helping the pancreas make more insulin right after meals. (Generic name: nateglinide.)

euglycemia:

a normal level of glucose in the blood.

exchange lists:

one of several approaches for diabetes meal planning. Foods are categorized into three groups based on their nutritional content. Lists provide the serving sizes for carbohydrates, meat and meat alternatives, and fats. These lists allow for substitution for different groups to keep the nutritional content fixed.

fasting blood glucose test:

a check of a person's blood glucose level after the person has not eaten for 8 to 12 hours (usually overnight). This test is used to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. It is also used to monitor people with diabetes.

fructosamine test:

measures the number of blood glucose molecules linked to protein molecules in the blood. The test provides information on the average blood glucose level for the past 3 weeks.

fructose:

a sugar that occurs naturally in fruits and honey. Fructose has 4 calories per gram.

gastroparesis:

a form of neuropathy that affects the stomach. Digestion of food may be incomplete or delayed, resulting in nausea, vomiting, or bloating, making blood glucose control difficult.

gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM):

a type of diabetes mellitus that develops only during pregnancy and usually disappears upon delivery, but increases the risk that the mother will develop diabetes later. GDM is managed with meal planning, activity, and, in some cases, insulin.

glimepiride:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Amaryl.)

glipizide:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand names: Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL.)

glucagon:

a hormone produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas. It raises blood glucose. An injectable form of glucagon, available by prescription, may be used to treat severe hypoglycemia.

glucose:

one of the simplest forms of sugar.

glucose tablets:

chewable tablets made of pure glucose used for treating hypoglycemia.

Glucovance:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is a combination of glyburide and metformin.

glyburide:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand names: DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase; ingredient in Glucovance.)

glycemic index:

a ranking of carbohydrate-containing foods, based on the food's effect on blood glucose compared with a standard reference food.

glycogen:

the form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.

glycosuria:

the presence of glucose in the urine.

honeymoon phase:

temporary remission of hyperglycemia that occurs in some people newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, when some insulin secretion resumes for a short time, usually a few months, before stopping again.

human leukocyte antigens (HLA):

proteins located on the surface of the cell that help the immune system identify the cell either as one belonging to the body or as one from outside the body. Some patterns of these proteins may mean increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

hyperglycemia:

excessive blood glucose. Fasting hyperglycemia is blood glucose above a desirable level after a person has fasted for at least 8 hours. Postprandial hyperglycemia is blood glucose above a desirable level 1 to 2 hours after a person has eaten.

hyperlipidemia:

higher than normal fat and cholesterol levels in the blood.

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS):

an emergency condition in which one's blood glucose level is very high and ketones are not present in the blood or urine. If HHNS is not treated, it can lead to coma or death.

hypoglycemia:

a condition that occurs when one's blood glucose is lower than normal, usually less than 70 mg/dL. Signs include hunger, nervousness, shakiness, perspiration, dizziness or light-headedness, sleepiness, and confusion. If left untreated, hypoglycemia may lead to unconsciousness. Hypoglycemia is treated by consuming a carbohydrate-rich food such as a glucose tablet or juice. It may also be treated with an injection of glucagon if the person is unconscious or unable to swallow. Also called an insulin reaction.

hypoglycemia unawareness:

a state in which a person does not feel or recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia. People who have frequent episodes of hypoglycemia may no longer experience the warning signs of it.

IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus):

former term for type 1 diabetes.

impaired fasting glucose (IFG):

a condition in which a blood glucose test, taken after an 8- to 12-hour fast, shows a level of glucose higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. IFG, also called pre-diabetes, is a level of 100 mg/dL to 125 mg/dL. Most people with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes.

impaired glucose tolerance (IGT):

a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. IGT, also called pre-diabetes, is a level of 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL 2 hours after the start of an oral glucose tolerance test. Most people with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Other names for IGT that are no longer used are "borderline," "subclinical," "chemical," or "latent" diabetes.

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM):

former term for type 1 diabetes.

insulinoma:

a tumor of the beta cells in the pancreas. An insulinoma may cause the body to make extra insulin, leading to hypoglycemia.

intramuscular injection:

inserting liquid medication into a muscle with a syringe. Glucagon may be given by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection for hypoglycemia.

islet cell autoantibodies (ICA):

proteins found in the blood of people newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. They are also found in people who may be developing type 1 diabetes. The presence of ICA indicates that the body's immune system has been damaging beta cells in the pancreas.

juvenile diabetes:

former term for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or type 1 diabetes.

ketoacidosis:

an emergency condition in which extremely high blood glucose levels, along with a severe lack of insulin, result in the breakdown of body fat for energy and an accumulation of ketones in the blood and urine. Signs of DKA are nausea and vomiting, stomach pain, fruity breath odor, and rapid breathing. Untreated DKA can lead to coma and death.

ketone:

a chemical produced when there is a shortage of insulin in the blood and the body breaks down body fat for energy. High levels of ketones can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis and coma. Sometimes referred to as ketone bodies.

ketonuria:

a condition occurring when ketones are present in the urine, a warning sign of diabetic ketoacidosis.

ketosis:

a ketone buildup in the body that may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Signs of ketosis are nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain.

Kussmaul breathing:

the rapid, deep, and labored breathing of people who have diabetic ketoacidosis.

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA):

a condition in which type 1 diabetes develops in adults.

macrosomia:

abnormally large; in diabetes, refers to abnormally large babies that may be born to women with diabetes.

maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY):

a kind of type 2 diabetes that accounts for 1 to 5 percent of people with diabetes. Of the six forms identified, each is caused by a defect in a single gene.

meglitinide:

a class of oral medicine for type 2 diabetes that lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin right after meals. (Generic name: repaglinide.)

metabolic syndrome:

the tendency of several conditions to occur together, including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes or pre-diabetes, hypertension, and high lipids.

metformin:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by reducing the amount of glucose produced by the liver and helping the body respond better to the insulin made in the pancreas. Belongs to the class of medicines called biguanides. (Brand names: Glucophage, Glucophage XR; an ingredient in Glucovance.)

mg/dL:

milligrams per deciliter, a unit of measure that shows the concentration of a substance in a specific amount of fluid. In the United States, blood glucose test results are reported as mg/dL. Medical journals and other countries use millimoles per liter (mmol/L). To convert to mg/dL from mmol/L, multiply mmol/L by 18. Example: 10 mmol/L × 18 = 180 mg/dL.

microaneurysm:

a small swelling that forms on the side of tiny blood vessels. These small swellings may break and allow blood to leak into nearby tissue. People with diabetes may get microaneurysms in the retina of the eye.

miglitol:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It blocks the enzymes that digest starches in food. The result is a slower and lower rise in blood glucose throughout the day, especially right after meals. Belongs to the class of medicines called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. (Brand name: Glyset.)

mixed dose:

a combination of two types of insulin in one injection. Usually a rapid- or short-acting insulin is combined with a longer acting insulin (such as NPH insulin) to provide both short-term and long-term control of blood glucose levels.

mmol/L:

millimoles per liter, a unit of measure that shows the concentration of a substance in a specific amount of fluid. In most of the world, except for the United States, blood glucose test results are reported as mmol/L. In the United States, milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is used. To convert to mmol/L from mg/dL, divide mg/dL by 18. Example: 180 mg/dL ÷ 18 = 10 mmol/L.

nateglinide:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose levels by helping the pancreas make more insulin right after meals. Belongs to the class of medicines called D-phenylalanine derivatives. (Brand name: Starlix.)

neuropathy:

disease of the nervous system. The three major forms in people with diabetes are peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy. The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which affects mainly the legs and feet.

noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM):

former term for type 2 diabetes.

noninvasive blood glucose monitoring:

measuring blood glucose without pricking the finger to obtain a blood sample.

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT):

a test to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. The oral glucose tolerance test is given by a health care professional after an overnight fast. A blood sample is taken, then the patient drinks a high-glucose beverage. Blood samples are taken at intervals for 2 to 3 hours. Test results are compared with a standard and show how the body uses glucose over time.

oral hypoglycemic agents:

medicines taken by mouth by people with type 2 diabetes to keep blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. Classes of oral hypoglycemic agents are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, D-phenylalanine derivatives, meglitinides, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones.

pioglitazone:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It helps insulin take glucose from the blood into the cells for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin. Belongs to the class of medicines called thiazolidinediones. (Brand name: Actos.)

polydipsia:

excessive thirst; may be a sign of diabetes.

polyphagia:

excessive hunger; may be a sign of diabetes.

polyuria:

excessive urination; may be a sign of diabetes.

postprandial blood glucose:

the blood glucose level taken 1 to 2 hours after eating.

pre-diabetes:

a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and for heart disease and stroke. Other names for pre-diabetes are impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose.

preprandial blood glucose:

the blood glucose level taken before eating.

proinsulin:

the substance made first in the pancreas and then broken into several pieces to become insulin.

rebound hyperglycemia:

a swing to a high level of glucose in the blood after a low level. See Somogyi effect.

renal threshold of glucose:

the blood glucose concentration at which the kidneys start to excrete glucose into the urine.

repaglinide:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin right after meals. Belongs to the class of medicines called meglitinides. (Brand name: Prandin.)

rosiglitazone:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It helps insulin take glucose from the blood into the cells for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin. Belongs to the class of medicines called thiazolidinediones. (Brand name: Avandia.)

Somogyi effect, also called rebound hyperglycemia:

when the blood glucose level swings high following hypoglycemia. The Somogyi effect may follow an untreated hypoglycemic episode during the night and is caused by the release of stress hormones.

starch:

another name for carbohydrate, one of the three main nutrients in food.

sucrose:

a two-part sugar made of glucose and fructose. Known as table sugar or white sugar, it is found naturally in sugar cane and in beets.

sugar:

1. A class of carbohydrates with a sweet taste; includes glucose, fructose, and sucrose. 2. A term used to refer to blood glucose.

sugar alcohols:

sweeteners that produce a smaller rise in blood glucose than other carbohydrates. Their calorie content is about 2 calories per gram. Includes erythritol, hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol. Also known as polyols.)

sugar diabetes:

former term for diabetes mellitus.

sulfonylurea:

a class of oral medicine for type 2 diabetes that lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. (Generic names: acetohexamide, chlorpropamide, glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide, tolazamide, tolbutamide.)

thiazolidinedione:

a class of oral medicine for type 2 diabetes that helps insulin take glucose from the blood into the cells for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin. (Generic names: pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.)

tolazamide:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Tolinase.)

tolbutamide:

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Orinase.)

type 1 diabetes:

a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults.

type 2 diabetes:

a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by either a lack of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin efficiently. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older adults but can appear in young people.

urine testing:

also called urinalysis; a test of a urine sample to diagnose diseases of the urinary system and other body systems. In people with diabetes, a doctor may check for

1. Glucose, a sign of diabetes or other diseases.
2. Protein, a sign of kidney damage, or nephropathy. (Also see albuminuria.)
3. White blood cells, a sign of urinary tract infection.
4. Ketones, a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis or other conditions.

Urine may also be checked for signs of bleeding. Some tests use a single urine sample. For others, 24-hour collection may be needed. And sometimes a sample is "cultured" to see exactly what type of bacteria grows.

weight loss for diabetics:

Weight loss is an important therapeutic objective for patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical evidence shows that weight reduction in type 2 diabetics is associated with decreased insulin resistance, improved measures of glycemia and dyslipidemia and reduced blood pressure.

General Advice For Diabetics
Diabetes Information
Diabetes Symptoms
Diabetes Test
Diabetes Treatment
Diabetes Management
Diabetes Health Problems
Diabetes and Weight Loss
Gestational Diabetes
Pre-Diabetes Guide
Hyperglycemia - High Blood Glucose
Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Glucose
Diabetes, Carbs and Diet
Diabetes Health on Low Carb Diet
Obesity Information
Diabesity, Diabetes and Obesity

Hormone to Lower Blood Glucose
Insulin Information
Insulin Hormone & Blood Glucose
Hyperinsulimia - High Insulin Levels
Insulin and Glucose For Brain
Insulin and Obesity
Insulin Development
Types of Insulin
Synthetic Insulin: Animal/Human
Long Acting Insulin
Intermediate Acting Insulin
Rapid Acting Insulin
Short Acting Insulin
Insulin Resistance
Insulin Resistance, Obesity, Carbs
Insulin Resistance Syndrome

Carbs and Glycemic Response
Carbohydrates Information
Complex Carbs Guide
Facts About Carbohydrates
Dietary Fiber
Digestion of Carbs
Blood Glucose Levels
Glucose into Energy
Blood Glucose Monitor/Meter
Glycemic Index Food Chart
Glycemic Index - How Measured?
What Affects Glycemic Value?
Glycemic Value of a Meal
Health Effects of High GI Carbs
Glycemic Index Food Pyramid
GI Diet Menu
GI Diet Foods
GI Diet Recipes

Glycemic Index (GI)
GI Diet Plan
GI Diet Book
GI Diet Forum
GI Values in Carbohydrates
GI Value For Beans
GI Value For Bread
GI Value For Cereal
GI Value For Dairy Food
GI Value For Drinks
GI Value For Fruit
GI Value For Meat/Fish
GI Value For Nuts
GI Value For Snacks
GI Value For Starchy Carbs
GI Value For Sugar
GI Value For Vegetables
GI Value For Whole Grains


Carbs-Information.com provides general information about the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), low GI diets, GI values for all food groups, health problems of high blood glucose including metabolic disorders such as pre-diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism as well as type 1 and type 2 diabetes. But no information is intended as a substitute for medical advice. Copyright 2003-2018.